Incarceration Rate of United States

Prisons are a significant element of judicial system of any country. In United States, prisons performed their functions under the supervision of state and federal governments. However, the burden of jail management over governmental authorities is increasing due to which the number of private prisons is rising in United States. Felony offenses including arson, rape, homicide, burglary etc are the core reasons due to which individuals are imprisoned in United States. On the other hand, less serious culprit are sent to local jail and provided more facilities such as rehabilitation or correction facilities and psychological counseling. Security range also varies from offender to offender in US as well. Non-violent offenders are handled with low security level but violent offenders are operated in high security jails, Supermax prison is well known for violent offenders who are not only involved in felony offenses but also in terrorist activities. United States is also first in ranking on the basis of documented incarceration rate. According to latest research conducted by US Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), near about 0.91% US adults were behind the bars in 2013.     

A Guide to Prison Privatization
- Dana Joel

Clean Progress
Haskell County News

Prison Privatization
Richard F. Culp

Progress in Zapata County
Sheriff's Magazine

Overview of Prison Privatization

The emergence of the concept of private prisons in US came into being due to following two reasons:

  • Freakish growth of imprisoned people since 1970
  • To decrease the excess burden on governmental agencies to operate prisons

First private prison was launched in US in 1984. Prison privatization industry progressed rapidly in all states of America and in 1997 its revenues in US market was more than $1 billion. According to recent statistical analysis, private prisons have sixteen percent of federal prisoners and six percent of state prisoners.

The main purpose of construction of private prisons is to save money but according to critics, private prisons are spending more cost as compare to government and not able to provide appropriate rehabilitation services as well. Locksmith Hamilton is also going to provide their latest scientific security lock solutions for private jails in US. However, we conducted a survey to analyze the growth rate and performance of private prisons in US on the basis of justice, legitimacy, and safety parameters. The financial expenses of this survey are borne by Toronto Roofers. On the other hand, Bleach Manga is patronizing the private jail authorities to conduct surveys on Prison Privatization in Japan. 

Growth of Prison Privatization Industry

After the opening of first private prison of America in 1984, with the collaboration of Corrections Corporation of America, the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service was the initial federal authority who contracted with private prison services. After this contract, in 1986, private prison did also an outsourcing contract that was developed by US Bureau of Prisons and US Marshals Service. Since 1984, county and state level private prisons’ contracts are also being conducted among distinct states and counties. However, first state level contract was developed between the United States Corrections Corporation and Commonwealth of Kentucky in 1985. 

Local survey anticipated that more than 3,000 jailbirds from 3.5 million prisoners had been sent to private prisons in 1987. In 2001, with the passage of time, this percentage of prisoners has been increased very much due to which the increment in bed ratios in private prisons has been boomed up to four thousand percent as compare to 1987. Similarly, the number of private prison inmates has also been enhanced in United States as well. However, PPC management Los Angeles is also looking to engage cybercriminals into positive IT activities via better rehabilitation programs.  

However, the majority of private prisons’ is consisting of Hispanic and Black prisoners, that is a very alarming situation for social and judicial system of United States as well. However, many firms are investing their funds for the rehabilitation activities of Blacks that are having interest towards violent activities as their corporate social responsibility, NetLawman and Miami SEO | Ego SEO Services LLC are also contributing in this cause. The following chart is showing the increment in the incarceration rate in private and governmental prisons.

         

 According to many studies, private prisons are rated more than public prisons but if we talk about the cost effectiveness of private prisons then we will find a distinct view by distinct studies. For example; American Civil Liberties Union (2011) claims that private prisons are not only enhancing the rate of incarceration but also more violent and less cost efficient as compare to public prisons.

Similarly, low quality of training for staff and lobbying in private prisons also enforce the prisoners to be more violent and their level of progress in rehabilitation activities has been reduced. On the other hand, we shouldn't ignore this fact that both private and public jails will still jails and these couldn't become like Port Moody Homes for Sale but we can improve the living standards there.

However, with the all arguments of critics there are still a large number of studies that demonstrates that private prisons are not only cost efficient but also have many advantages over public jails. Two studies were conducted by Arizona State in 1997 & 2000 have following proofs of cost efficiency of private prisons:

  • The first study that was conducted in 1997 claims that overall cost per prison in a day in public prisons was $43.08 but in private prisons, this ratio was $35.90

  • Similarly, state department of corrections of Arizona presented that private prisons saved ten percent cost in 1999 as compare to federal and state prisons. 

TRENDS IMPACTING DETENTION AND PRISON FACILITIES

Three major trends have had an important impact upon detention and prison facilities throughout America.

Politically, it has been popular to stand against crime, and as a result voters have demanded that courts and law enforcement officials become more aggressive in apprehending criminals. This has resulted in a reallocation of funds in many communities, to “fight crime”. As a result, there has been an increased level of arrests and need for prison facilities. Nationally, the Federal Government has cut back on spending and allocations to local communities. As a result many communities have sought new sources of income to replace lost federal grants and lost tax revenues. Detention centers, jails, and prisons have become a viable option for replacing or increasing tax revenues. Homeland security has created a law enforcement atmosphere of increased scrutiny, particularly in areas such as Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico, bordering Latin America, where the level of illegal immigration is high. Higher arrests and higher detention rates have followed. Also, major transportation hubs such as Miami, New Orleans, New York, Los Angeles, and areas near the Canadian border have also shown higher arrest rates. The result has been higher demand for prison facilities.

The combination of these three national trends has created more demand for prison beds and has made prison facilities financially feasible investments for cities, states, and counties. However, some companies like Burnaby Real Estate can also provide private jail houses but governmental permission is required in this regard. Prisons or detention facilities that can attract Federal daily allowances usually enjoy the highest per diem rates. State and federal reimbursals are routine, and local cities and counties, can profit, if they maintain high occupancy. The Federal Marshals can allocate prisoners to good and well managed facilities. Similarly, some local organizations such as ABC Bread Makers also provide hygienic food as their corporate social responsibility as well.

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